Category Archives: PR Reading Notes

Chapter 9:Public Opinion and persuasion

Wilcox D.L. and Cameron, G. T. (2009). Public Relations Strategies and Tactics ninth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Opinion Leaders as Catalysts

 Opinion leaders are described as:

  1. highly interested in a subject or issue
  2. better informed on an issue that the average person
  3. avid consumers of mass media
  4. early adaptors of new ideas and
  5. good organizers who can get other people to take action

 

“Individualist” fit the profile of:

  1. being active in the community
  2. having a collective degree
  3. earning relativity high incomes
  4. regularly reading newspapers nad magazines
  5. actively participating in recreational activities and
  6. showing environmental concern by recycling

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Chapter 8: Evaluation

Wilcox D.L. and Cameron, G. T. (2009). Public Relations Strategies and Tactics ninth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 

Basic evaluation questions that any practitioner should ask: here is a check list:

 

  • What the activity or program planned?
  • Did the precipitants of the message understand it?
  • How could the program strategy have been more effective?
  • Where are primary and secondary audiences reached?
  • Was the desired organizational objective achieved?
  • What unforeseen circumstances affected the success of the program or activity?
  • Did the program or activity fall within the budget set for?
  • What steps can be taken to improve the success of similar future activities?

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Chapter 6: Program Planning

 Wilcox D.L. and Cameron, G. T. (2009). Public Relations Strategies and Tactics ninth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

 What is the value of planning?

 *A good public relations program should be an effective strategy to support an organization’s business, marketing, and communication objectives.

 

*Public relations should be strategic.

 

Management by Objective: provides focus and direction for formulating strategy. The following steps are the basis for strategic planning.

  1. Client/employer objectives
  2. Audience-publics
  3. audience objectives
  4. media channels
  5. media channel objectives
  6. sources and questions
  7. communication strategies
  8. essence of the message
  9. nonverbal support

 

Strategic Planning Model

 

Facts:

Category facts

Product/services issues

Completive facts

Customer facts

 

Goals:

Business objectives

Role of public relations

Sources of new business

 

Audience:

Target audiences

Current mind-set

Desired mind-set

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Chapter 4 Public Relations Departments and Firms

 Wilcox D.L. and Cameron, G. T. (2009). Public Relations Strategies and Tactics ninth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

 

Public Relations Firms

 Typically they provide a variety of services such as:

*Marketing communications- This is the promotion of products and services through such tools as news releases, feature stories, special events, brochures, and media tours.

*Executive speech training- Top executives are coached on public affairs, including personal appearances.

*Research and evaluation- Scientific surveys are conducted to measure public attitudes, and perceptions.

*Crisis communication- Management is counseled on what to say and do in an emergency such as an out spill or a recall of an unsafe product

*Media analysis-Appropriate media are examined for targeting specific messages to key audiences.

*Community relations- Management is counseled on ways to achieve official and public support for such projects as building or expanding a factory

*Events management-news conferences, anniversary celebrations, rallies, symposiums, and national conferences are planned and conducted.

*Public affairs-Materials and testimony are prepared for government hearings and regulatory bodies, and background briefings are prepared.

*Branding and corporate reputation-Advice is given on programs and establish a company brand and its reputation for quality.

*Financial relations- Management is counseled on ways to avoid takeover by another firm and effectively communicate with stockholders, security analysts, and institutional investors.

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Chapter 3 Ethics and Professionalism

 Wilcox D.L. and Cameron, G. T. (2009). Public Relations Strategies and Tactics ninth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

 

What is Ethics?

According to J.A. Jaksa and M.S. Pritchard from their book Methods of Analysis, “Ethics, is concerned with how we should live our lives. It focuses on questions about what is right or wrong, fair or unfair, caring or uncaring, good or bad, responsible or irresponsible, and the like.”

 

The three basic value orientations according to the book Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics are:

 

  1. Absolute: The absolutist believes that every decision is either “right” or “wrong,” regardless of the consequences. It is based on the philosophy of Immanuel Kant that the end cannot justify the means.
  2. Existential: The Existentialist, whose choices are not made in a prescribed value system, decides on the basis of immediate practical choice. This approach is somewhat grounded in Aristotle’s idea that individuals should seek balance, to midpoint, between two extremes. In other words, Aristotle would disagree with Kant by saying,” never say never.”
  3. Situational: the situationalist believes that each decision is based on what would cause the least harm or the most good. This often is called the utilitarian approach. This concept was advanced by John Stuart Mill, who believed the end could justify the means as long as the result benefited that greatest number of people.

 

There are also some professional codes of conduct. Three principals are essential:

  1. Professional communication is legal
  2. Professional communication is ethical
  3. Professional communication is in good taste

                                           -IABC Code of Ethics

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Chapter 5: Research

Wilcox D.L. and Cameron, G. T. (2009). Public Relations Strategies and Tactics ninth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.If you are going to conduct a questionnaire here are some guidelines to follow that the book suggest:

 

Determine the type of information that is needed and in what detail

State the objectives of the survey in writing

Decide which group will receive the questionnaire

Decide of the size of the sample

State the purpose of the survey

Use close-end, multiple-choice answers

Avoid ambiguous words

 

*Phone interviews are the most expensive form of research because it requires trained staff and travel*

 

* To achieve credibility with management- executives want facts, not guesses and hunches.*

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Chapter 7: Communication

Wilcox D.L. and Cameron, G. T. (2009). Public Relations Strategies and Tactics ninth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 

A public relations perspective:

1. Message exposure: provide messages to mass media

2.Accurate dissemination of the message- the basic information

3.acceptance of the message-based on the view of the reality

4.attitude change- the audience believes the message

5.change in overt behavior-members of the audience actually changes their current behavior

 

Six elements of enumerates:

1. receiving the message

2.paying attention to the message

3.understading the message

4.believing in the message

5.remembering the message

6.acting on the message

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